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Basic Process of Rubber Manufacture

I. basic technological process


There are many kinds of rubber products, but the production process is basically the same. The basic process of rubber products with general solid rubber - raw rubber as raw material includes six basic processes: plasticizing, mixing, calendering, extrusion, molding and vulcanization. Of course, raw material preparation, finishing, inspection, packaging and other basic processes are indispensable. The processing technology of rubber is mainly to solve the contradictory process of plasticity and elastic properties. By various technological means, elastic rubber can be changed into plastic rubber, and then semi-finished products can be made by adding various additives. Then the semi-finished products with plasticity can be changed into rubber products with high elasticity and good physical and mechanical properties by vulcanization.


Two. Raw material preparation


1. The main raw material of rubber products is raw rubber, and raw rubber is grown in tropical and subtropical rubber trees through artificial cutting bark collection.


2. all kinds of additives are auxiliary materials to improve some properties of rubber products.


3. Fiber materials (cotton, linen, wool and all kinds of man-made fibers, synthetic fibers and metal materials, steel wire) are used as the skeleton materials of rubber products to enhance mechanical strength and restrict product modification. The ingredients must be accurately weighed according to the formulation in the raw material preparation process. In order to make the raw rubber and the compounding agent mix evenly, it is necessary to process the materials. The raw rubber should be dried in the drying room at 60--70 C and then cut into glue and broken into small pieces. Such as paraffin, stearic acid, rosin and so on should be crushed. If the powder contains mechanical impurities or coarse grains need to be screened to remove liquid such as pine tar, Gumalone need to be heated, melted, evaporated moisture, filter impurities, the mixture to dry or easy to agglomerate, mixing if not dispersed uniform vulcanization bubble will affect product quality.


Three.


Raw rubber is elastic and lacks the plastic properties necessary for processing. Therefore, it is not easy to process. In order to improve its plasticity, it is necessary to plasticize the raw rubber, so that the mixture is easy to be evenly dispersed in the raw rubber during mixing. At the same time, it is also helpful to improve the permeability of the rubber into the fiber fabric and the molding fluidity during the calendering and molding process. The process of degrading the long chain molecules of raw gum into plasticity is called plasticization. There are two ways to produce raw rubber, namely, mechanical plasticization and thermoplasticization. Mechanical plasticization is the process of changing the degradation of long chain rubber molecules from high elasticity to plasticity by mechanical extrusion and friction at a low temperature. Thermoplasticity is achieved by introducing hot compressed air into the raw rubber to shorten the degradation of long chain molecules under the action of heat and oxygen.


Four. Mixing


In order to adapt to different use conditions, obtain a variety of different properties, but also to improve the performance of rubber products and reduce costs, it is necessary to add different mixtures in raw rubber. Mixing is a process in which the raw glue after plasticizing is mixed with the admixture and placed in the rubber-making machine to mix the admixture completely and evenly. Mixing is an important process in the production of rubber products. If the mixing is not uniform, it can not give full play to the role of rubber and additives to affect the performance of products. The rubber obtained after mixing is called mixing rubber. It is a semi-finished material for manufacturing various rubber products. It is commonly called rubber. It is usually sold as a commodity. Buyers can use the rubber directly to process and vulcanize the rubber products they need. According to the formula? Mixing rubber has a series of different brands and varieties with different properties.


Five, molding


Forming is a process in which various shapes and sizes of rubber products are preformed by calender or extruder. There are ways to form.


1. calender forming


It is suitable for making simple sheet and plate products. It is the mixing glue through the calender pressed into a certain shape, a certain size of film method called calendering molding. Some rubber products, such as tires, rubber cloth, hoses and other textile fiber materials must be coated with a thin layer of glue on the fiber, also known as glue pasting or glue rubbing?? Glue coating process is generally completed on the calender. The purpose of drying and dipping drying fiber materials before calendering is to reduce the moisture content of fiber materials so as to avoid moisture evaporation and foaming, and to increase the temperature of fiber materials to ensure the quality of calendering process. Dipping is a necessary process before hanging glue. The purpose is to improve the binding property of fiber material to rubber compound.


2. extrusion molding


For more complex rubber products, such as tire tread, hose, wire surface coatings need to be manufactured by extrusion molding. It is a kind of method that plastically mixing glue is put into the hopper of the extruder under the extrusion of the screw and is continuously modeled by various mouths, also known as templates. Before extrusion, the rubber must be preheated to make the rubber soft and easy to extrude so as to obtain a smooth surface and accurate size of rubber products.


3. molding


Some rubber products with complicated shapes, such as leather bowls and sealing rings, can also be manufactured by moulding. The rubber materials can be placed in the moulds to be heated and molded with the aid of the moulded Yin and Yang moulds.


Six. Vulcanization


The process of converting plastic rubber into elastic rubber is called vulcanization. It is a network of curing agents, such as sulfur and accelerators, added to the semi-finished product made from raw rubber, heated and insulated in a vulcanizing tank at a specified temperature so that the linear molecules of raw rubber cross-link each other by forming a "sulfur bridge" to form a body. Structure so as to make plastic


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